Wednesday, January 13, 2016



By Fahim Knight-El

A). Plan of Investigation:

We now live in a society that has entered into a new political, economic and social paradigm, which has evolved along side globalism and the age of information. This transition somewhat had its beginnings with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989, which brought an end to the Cold War and ultimately led to the changing of world orders (the Cold War ending would eventually lead to the present day war on Islam being disguised as a war on terror). The United States entered into a series of wars and conflicts in the early 1990s, in particular in Desert Storm and Desert Shield and in 2001 and 2003 beginning with the Iraq War and two years later our invasion of Afghanistan, which has led many of us to believe, that the U.S. had other ulterior motives other than national security interest such as controlling these nations natural resources and establishing themselves as permanent occupying forces in this vital strategic region of the world. Some Americans also believed that Saddam Hussein and Osama Bin-Laden posed an eminent danger and threat to the United States national security interest (President Barack Hussein Obama has been more dangerous to world peace than both George W.H. Bush and George W. Bush). The war on Islam, culminated with the attack and bombing of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

Thus, after viewing and reading about the 9/11 event, which killed of over 3,000 American citizens and our ongoing conflicts with radical Islam and Muslim extremists, it was this event that led me to think deeper about being an American and the question of patriotism (I started question who was really behind the 9/11 hoax and what would be the culprits short term and long term goals relative to the American people, in particular and the globe in general?). This writer believes, that patriotism must be rooted in ones loyalty to something greater than themselves. It first must be tied to a theory and belief that there is nothing greater to uphold than a willingness to pledge allegiance to a God, people, nation, flag and noble causes in which one is even willing to live by and/or die by. This disposition must be undergirded and supported by the embracing of nationalism and are willing to uphold the values, standards, principles, laws, codes of conduct and all that governs our jurisprudence system and our Democracy without compromise. There is no room for treason and betrayal, if our sovereignty is rooted in the fundamental principles of Freedom, Justice and Equality (this would make it difficult for ISIS and/or any other anti-U.S. government entity to appeal and recruit U.S. citizens who are willing to commit treasonous acts, sedition and/or subversive actions against our government, if the government was ruled by the people and was for the people).

This writer, thinks that for real patriotism to exist in America in 2016, there must be a level of tolerance, that is taught on the primary school levels (and continued to be infused on the secondary levels of education) in which young impressionable minds are exposed to the diversity of cultures, races, nationalities, religions, etc. Also, alleviate the negative stereotypes and propaganda about people who may differ from us (yet I am not optimistic that we will ever achieve a pluralistic or multicultural society, because of white supremacy) and allow the American people to have a dissenting voice and create more avenues where ideals, thoughts, opinions, beliefs and differs of philosophy and views can be freely and openly debated not just in the ivory towers, think tanks, corporate media, and in the halls of congress, but on the grassroots level. People need to know and understand why we should and/or should not back our government foreign policy agenda (in particular, if it's deemed reactionary and tyrannical) and is it worth risking our lives in the name of false flag waving by suiting up militarily and going to foreign battle fields to fight for causes that are in the interest of the Super-Elite (these U.S. soldiers are only being used as tools of U.S. Foreign Policy) and those who control the systematic tentacles of Western Capitalism—many U.S. soldiers are haunted upon returning back home to the U.S. (plagued with PTSD) and once they discover the truth they become politically disillusioned; their patriotism is often shattered and brought into question after witnessing the injustices being inflicted on innocent civilians in the Middle East, Africa, and Central Asia (wars are never fought in the interest of the poor and the have ‘nots’ they are fought in the interest of the Invisible Rulers). The teachings of civics and social studies have to be improved to reflect that we have entered into a New World Order, that is more dangerous and volatile than when the Thirteen Colonies fought the Revolutionary War against Great Britain, Civil War and when the Founder Father set down in 1787 and finalized framing of the United States Constitution.

The so-called war on terror and terrorism have to be an intellectually engaging conversation whereas there are objective critical analysis being rendered (not persuasive propaganda giving to mislead the American people and the globe) and allow the American people to determine whether, we can embrace and trust that our government and nation has provided us with all the facts relative to the true motives behind these induced wars and conflicts. Until the U.S. Government does this, they do not deserve to have our un-daunting loyalty to uphold, defend and protect the United States Constitution against foreign and domestic enemies. This can only take place, if we begin educating young people on matters of Homeland Security, U.S. Patriot Act. Military Commission Act, National Defense Authorization Act, Anti-Terrorism Act, etc, and how the U.S. Government has created a police state (which is slowly moving us closer to Martial Law) in the name of national security interest in which has absolved it citizens of civil liberties (the American citizens have lost most of their Constitutional rights and they do not even know this because of the power and influence of the dummying down process ). They have rendered the U.S. Constitution as a useless piece of paper and have covertly rewritten the fundamental basis of our jurisprudence and the original constitutional standards of law. It is our duty and obligation to reinspire our citizens to study the brilliance of the Founding Fathers and the Framers of the U.S. Constitution and in doing so, it will this possibly reinvigorate a new generation of patriots, that will have no interest of becoming an enemy combatants or joining onto America's enemies, but will serve as true U.S. Patriots and defenders of righteousness. They will be more interested in upholding the freedoms that were initially guaranteed to all so-called Americans based on law (now, we have been subject to the rule of a Shadow Government). Thus, if we adhere to the above there will be no more need to administer oaths and swear-ins, but our loyalty and patriotism will forever be rooted in our hearts.

The religion of Islam was placed at the center of the world stage after September 11, 2001 bombing of the World Trade Center Towers in New York City in which sixteen (16) of the nineteen (19) alleged hijackers were Saudi Arabian nationals (a so-called U.S. allied nation), as well as being Arab Muslims. However, this investigation will mainly examine whether or not the aftermath of the 9/11 crisis created an atmosphere of hatred, bigotry, discrimination, harassment, prejudices, racism, etc., aimed at Muslim Americans and did it lead to Muslims and Middle Easterners (as well other Muslim ethnic nationalities) being unjustly and negatively stereotyped based on their faith tradition, race, ethnicity, nationality, etc. My examination of this subject was to consciously make every attempt to move away from the political and the theological arguments and controversy associated with Muslims and Islam in particular, the ongoing disputes that the West has with so-called radical militant Islam and the so-called War on Terror. Nevertheless, my research at times will briefly mention some of the historical and ongoing antagonisms in order to clarify a historical period, but will not give lengthy analysis in this direction, which could lead to a compromise of objectivity, because of the emotionalism that has been garnished on both sides of this issue.
However, the 9-11 incident is more of a recent phenomenon, therefore, it must be viewed from a contemporary analysis more so than from a long standing historical contention that has withstood academic scrutiny and time. This writer thinks, that it will be years and even decades before historians (and/or social scientist) can completely assess and historically evaluate this event from a political, economic and social perspective by using all the available data and drawing a reliable hypothesis by which to truly determine what happened on September 11, 2001 (all the facts are still not-in); however, one thing for sure we cannot trust the evidence presented in the 9/11 Commission Report. And the impact 9/11 incident had on the United States of America and the globe (perhaps no other recent historical event has shaped this new paradigm and simanteously created a new normal as did 9/11). My research admittedly will be narrow in scope and lack a complete comprehensive study in which my investigation will just focus on stereotypes (racism, discrimination, lack of tolerance, etc., aimed at Muslim Americans) associated with the aftermath of 9-11 in which the mass mediums reported that the alleged culprits behind this devastating event was so-called carried out by militant and radical Muslims. Many believed they (Muslim terrorist) had a political agenda of destroying America and disrupting our monetary system.

B). Summary of Evidence:

Prior to the 9-11 incident there were quasi historical tensions already in existences between Muslims and the West—the United States and Europe had divided the world up between whom they deemed ‘good Muslims and “bad Muslims”. Moderate Islamic states such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Jordan, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Qatar and even Iraq were by the West standards considered to be good Muslims and yet, there were Islamic states such as Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Yemen, Afghanistan, etc.,[1] who were deemed rogue nations and part of the axis of evil. And the so-called ‘good Islamic states” were reflected in the United States foreign policy and in how U.S. foreign aid, military assistance, and humanitarian assistance were dispensed and these nation had more accessibility to immigration (and was immune from being labeled and propagandized of being involved in state sponsored international terrorism and this kept certain Arab States from being imposed with U.S. and U.N. economic Sanctions and embargoes). Yet, foreign tension between the United States and the Muslim world continued to be acerbated by the U.S. unbalanced foreign policy interest [2] which had been evident for some time relative to the Islamic world. The former Iranian President Ayatollah Khomeini called the United States the ‘Great Satan’ and journalist Salman Rushdie countered Khomeini's demonizing rhetoric towards the U.S. with his book titled, Satanic Verses. These type war of words in my opinion, led us to the door step of 9-11and eventually to ISIS, as well as, the long standing conflict between the Palestinians and the Israelis in which many Muslims believed that the U.S. Middle East foreign policy was lopsided in favor of the Jews. The United States and the West has picked a fight that ultimately they cannot win, because they believe that those deemed U.S. Enemy Combatants (the U.S. internal enemies) had to be radicalized by some extremist militant Islamic cleric and fail to accept that Islam is unlike any other religion in the world what drives them is injustice. Here is a people that loves death more than they love life, and its two billion of them around the world [3].

Thus, even the media reporting of these various Middle East conflicts between the Shia and Sunni sects, which depicted acts of violence where as radical militant Muslims were killing their own people (some of this reporting was always shrouded in disinformation and propaganda in which to make it appear that the Muslims are lawless and barbaric people), but beneath the religious and political strife and schisms was an overriding rhetoric signifying a deep hatred for the United States and the West (and lets not forget the fact that the CIA has always served as the chief instigator in the Middle East affairs). The U.S. (under President George H.W. Bush) in 1990 and 1991, also went to war with Iraq and Saddam Hussein in the Gulf War 1 (Desert Storm) over issues relating to Kuwait[4]. And later in 2001 the U.S. was engaged in another war in Afghanistan (with another Muslim country) with the so-called Taliban and Osama Bin-Laden. These wars became a public relations nightmare for Muslims and Islam, in particular but also to the West in general, this has led to the United States being engaged in wars in that region of the world for over fourteen years that still has no clear cut objectives (the U.S. has been seeking to end these deployments for the last seven years since Obama took office but to no avail and we have steadily witness an increase in military build up and has become a burden to U.S. taxpayers). Yet, it has always been bothersome to me in how the western media were reporting these conflicts in which again in my opinion, created psychological negative stereotypes in the minds of many American citizens that Islam and Muslims were at war against the American people and that they had a political vendetta to kill, disrupt and destroy the American way of life[5].

Many Americans have never heard of Al-Jazeera Television (Middle Eastern, Islamic, Arab, etc., network that reported Middle Eastern news outside of the perspective of western journalism) and their opinions of Muslims and Islam were not being shaped and molded by biases western media sources[6]. Thus, before the 9/11 tragedy there was an initial attempt to blowup the World Trade Center on February 26, 1993 eight years before 9/11 with the objective of killing innocent American people and causing massive collateral damage.

This failed plot was led by Ramzi Yousef and five other co-conspirators, which was deemed a terrorist attack using 1,336 pounds urea nitrate–hydrogen gas enhanced device that eventually failed but did not ultimately meet its intended destructive objective of so-called mass murder of American citizens, but did kill six people and wounded over a thousand.

These various Arab and Muslim Jihadist became the poster boys of American enemies and the images would later play a huge part in desensitizing the American people relative to whether or not Arabs and Muslims after 9/11 were being protected by the United States Constitution and judicial system from discrimination, racism and stereotypes. Many Americans, as the United States Government were willing to overlook the legal rights (due process), civil rights, the United Nations international accords and all other systems of jurisprudence in the name of combating so-called radical extremist Islam or terrorism that had ventured onto shores of America. These sentiments were often in violation of U.S. law, but were being justified under national security concerns. Some United States citizens did not care that Arabs and Muslims were entitled to due process under the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution (however, after 9/11 they had a lockup and throw away the key mentality).
Former Congressman Curt Weldon of Pennsylvania in his book titled, Countdown to Terror stated: “Civilization is at a disadvantage in the war on terrorism, as it is always harder to build than to destroy. Sixteen centuries ago the Roman Empire fell to barbarian invasions. Rome, with its cities, aqueducts, roads, and far-flung commercial empire, became a victim of its greater economic and social sophistication. The barbarians could sack cities and pull down aqueducts more easily than the Romans could rebuild them. Terrorists are the new barbarians. These new barbarians are far less numerous than the barbarians of old, but hold the possibility of far greater power in their hands because of the existence of WDM. America’s highest priority must be to defeat the new barbarians. If we want to avoid the same fate of the Romans, we must stop the next, possibly catastrophic terrorist attack against the United States[7].

 C). Evaluation of Sources:

 Behind the Backlash: Muslim Americans After 9/11 authored by  Lori Peek (Professor of sociology at Colorado State University) was published in 2012 and it probably would be classified more of a sociological study that looks at how various sectors of society respond to mass emergencies and disasters. But right after 9/11, she interviewed 140 Muslim Americans and others who gave telling testimonies in their own words about the harassment, violence and discrimination they experienced as Muslim Americans post 9/11[8]. Thus, in her interviews Muslims all shared a central theme of feeling scape-goated and unjustly blamed for a crime that they did not commit. Yet, she also pointed out that many Muslims were unjustly being labeled terrorist and this negative notion justified these various acts of discrimination that were aimed at innocent Muslim Americans. These prejudices after 9/11 led to Muslim Masjids and Mosques being attacked and desecrated, because there were so many cultural misunderstandings that existed between Muslim societies in East and Christian societies in the West after and before  9/11 incident. These misconceptions were shrouded in ignorance and fear based, which was enough ammunition to incite the uninformed and dominant culture zealots who were motivated by racial and religious hatred to inflict vigilante style justice on Muslims and made unfair generalizations against all Arabs and Muslims. Professor Peek gave this marginalized sector of our society a voice during an extreme time of intolerance and to expose the danger of allowing the pendulum to swing to far to the right. Thus, blaming an entire Muslim religious world community for committing a crime that killed over 3,000 Americans was wrong—and many Muslim Americans were very much sympathetic to the victims of this horrid crime that constituted a loss of human life and property.

Thus, according to Peek cultural ignorance and discrimination led to vigilante groups rising up and coming against Muslim Americans (seeking to become judge, jury and executioner), but they immediately began to show their ignorance by attacking and even killing Sikhs and Hindus in the United States assuming, because these people had brown skin, dressed in Eastern attire appearance, spoke with an accent and wore turbans, that they had to be Middle Eastern Arab Muslims and better yet terrorist. Sikhs and Hindus were mistakenly being racially and religiously categorized as Muslims and after 9/11 became targets of religious and racial discrimination and bigotry that were being fueled by the dominant culture. Many of the vigilante attackers were not even aware of the historical and religious antagonism that existed between Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus, but their racism and cultural ignorance that led to indiscriminate acts of violence against innocent people who became the victims of hate crimes (bigotry) and culture insensitivity
[9]. Peek stated: “Never before had Muslims been subject to such overt hostility from so many different corners. Not surprisingly, violent outbursts and discriminatory actions followed: Civil Rights organization recorded thousands of incidents of anti-Islamic and anti-Arab harassment, hate crimes and vandalism in the months following 9/11. In addition, to the attacks on Muslims and Arabs, public anger was directed at other religious and ethnic minorities who were mistakenly identified as ‘Middle Easterners"[10]. 

Arabs and Muslims in the Media: Race and Representation after 9/11 (Critical Cultural Communication) authored by Evelyn Alsultany. Alsultany points out that post 9-11 human rights should have been the main focus of scholars and politicians alike, but the media created a reactionary view of Arabs and Islam that was shrouded in propaganda. She maintained that media images of Muslims, Arabs and Islam shown on television dramas and cinemas often systematically fed into the western stereotypes and in which the portrayals of Muslims in the media catered to the ignorance and emotionalism of the dominant culture in which 9/11 had created. Her analysis included assessing Hollywood and television shows (the programming) according Alsultany either covertly or overtly negatively lacked telling the story and exposing the American people to the diversity that existed inside of the Islamic culture and did very little to debunk the old and new stereotypes that Muslims were ‘terrorist’ and were involved in acts of terrorism against the United States of America. Alsultany overall thesis desired to hold the media to higher standards and denoted that the major corporate mediums had an equal responsibility to offset the false and negative images that Muslims and Arabs were bent on terrorism by portraying other positive aspects of Muslim culture and lives in media. She believed that this may would have created more of an objective look at Muslims by the dominant culture post 9/11, as opposed to the reactionary hatred that spoon fed harassment, racism, violence, bigotry, discrimination and fostered a culture of intolerance[11]. This writer does agree with Professor Alsultany that media is a very powerful tool in shaping and molding public opinion, but I think she is a little idealistic, if she thinks western journalism is going to accurately and objectively tell the Muslim side of the story. This writer thinks she understands that we live in a political culture of propaganda and some believe that Muslim American were systematically being scape-goated for a crime that had levels of suspects and deceptions.

She stated,after 9-11 the news media and public alike seemed eager to debate, and to disagree about, about the manifold issues and anxieties unleashed by the terrorist attacks: whether the U.S. PATRIOT Act should be passed; whether Arab and Muslims should be racially profiled, detained and/or deported; and whether or not the extent to which, it was justifiable to suspend or violate the U.S. Constitution during a time of crisis. Political conservatives often argued—both in the harrowing days after September 11 and in the months and years following—that it was not possible to be both safe and free, that freedoms must be inevitably sacrificed in the interest of safety and security. These same critics typically argued that racial profiling was a reasonable and necessary method of law enforcement[12]. 
D). Analysis:

This writer, is of the opinion, that one cannot fully understand the negative stereotypes that some Americans had towards Muslim Americans in relation to the 9-11 attack that had unjustly killed over 3,000 people at the World Trade Center in New York City unless one understood the long standing historical race relations and dynamics that have existed inside the United States of America for over four centuries between white and non-white people before this tragedy occurred.

Our nation was founded upon racism and we do not have look any further than the genocide of the ‘Native Americans and Chattel Slavery[13].’ Racism is often the fuel that light and drives stereotypes—racism is best defined as: “the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races; prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one's own race is superior[14]”. It is often this social phenomenon that breeds negative stereotypes and lead to discriminating against people who may racially look different than the dominant culture, practice a different religion, and/or subscribe to a different set of values, mores, folkways and view culture totally outside the dominant Western concepts of culture[15].

The September 11, 2001 bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City was immediately declared by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the U.S. Department of Defense and the State Department as and act of terrorism carried out by Osama bin Laden and his Jihadist inspired movement of Al-Qaeda, which committed one of worst military tragedies and alleged criminal acts ever committed on the continental United States—Bin Laden was considered to be Muslim and Arab (these variables alone were enough to incite American style ignorance). It did not help the Arab and Muslim cause viewing that Bush, our commander-in-chief and his administration had espoused a web of political propaganda, which they intentionally induced and created a climate of fear within the United States that reverberated around the world. President Bush was even quoted as saying ‘you are either with us or against us’[16].

The United States media had depicted Arab Muslims as having a political and religious philosophy bent on destroying the West and had declared America as so-called being the number one enemy of Islam. The Powers-that-be understood that in order to maximize their manipulation of the propaganda; they first had to create a culture of fear by blaming 9/11 on Arabs and Muslims (and their so-called Al-Qaeda terrorist network which has quietly justified their present day war on Islam) in their media schemes, this was a perfect diversionary tactic—they chose a people who were different from the American dominant cultural with a minority representation inside the country and was essentially powerless. The American people pre 9/11 knew very little about the religion of Al-Islam and the diversity of these ancient people, the religious politics, the various Islamic cultures, the various Islamic sects and schisms, etc., in which these variables were being naively overlooked[17].

But also there were rightwing conservatives and U.S. politicians and clergy as well as others who had a much different and a more sinister interpretation about blaming the allege culprits (in their minds these so-called culprits only had to be Muslim, practiced some form of Islam, and looked Middle Eastern in order to be blankly indicted by rightwing conservatives as terrorist) and felt in lieu of our national security interest, it was necessary to put in place laws, polices, rules and enactments in order to combat terror (Muslim discrimination was not at the forefront of their argument and the new vision they had for America post 9/11 did not include the U.S. Constitution)[18] and civil rights groups such as the American Civil liberties Union and the Southern Poverty Law Center legally sided with Muslim Americans in many of these incidents and cases. Some of the language the rightwing conservatives were spewing was deliberately being used to incite our ignorance and fester stereotypes against Muslims and Islam (in my opinion this was dangerous territory, because it was beginning to compromise our civil liberties and without doubt tingling with violating the United States Constitution) —just because a person looked Middle Eastern, spoke Arabic, attended religious services at a Mosque, dressed in traditional Islamic garbs, etc., it was wrong to discriminate. But in the cesspool of cultural ignorance, it did not matter to some, that each American had constitutional rights in spite of their religious orientation, nationality or race (First Amendment Rights). However, the aftermath of 9/11 created a hostile, insensitive and intolerable environment mainly aimed at Arabs, in particular, but all Muslims in general, they were being viewed with suspicion and Muslim discrimination was going unabated.

E. Conclusion:

This writer, is of the opinion, that after the ending of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1989, it created another “Cold War” that became ‘hot’ (our politicians do not want to publically admit this but the United States, the United Kingdom and France have declared war on Islam) due to lingering historical and culture misunderstandings between the United States and the Islamic world, which had been steeped in suspicion, mistrust, betrayal and political and religious apathy. The allege perpetrators of 9-11 attack were Muslims and Arabs this alone stirred some of the American people into believing that Muslims and Arabs even inside America had declared war against the United States of America in which the media and the government were creating a climate of fear based on propaganda and enactment of public policy.

Tariq Ali in his book titled: The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads, and Modernity Stated: “The necessity to explain these reactions does not mean justifying the atrocity of 11 September. It is an attempt to move beyond the simplistic argument that 'they hate us, because they're jealous of our freedoms and our wealth'. This is simply not the case. We have to understand the despair, but also the lethal exaltation, that drives people to sacrifice their own lives. If Western politicians remain igno­rant of the causes and carry on as before, there will be repetitions. Moral outrage has some therapeutic value, but as a political strategy it is useless. Lightly disguised wars of revenge waged in the heat of the moment are not much better. To fight tyranny and oppression by using tyrannical and oppres­sive means, to combat a single-minded and ruthless fanaticism by becoming equally fanatical and ruthless, will not further the cause of justice or bring about a meaningful democracy. It can only prolong the cycle of violence.”20 

The immediate backlash became acts of discrimination, violence, harassment, racism, unfair stereotypes, etc., were being aimed at Muslims and Arabs as being blamed for the horrendous act of 9/11. They became victims of vigilante style justice and widespread hate mongering by the dominant culture (i.e., there were statistical spikes in physical assaults against Muslims, defacing of Mosques and Masjids, negative media portrayals that Muslim American were involved in terrorism) and one Christian Pastor even talked about burning Qur’ans in Florida as an act of detesting Islam and Muslims—the United States Government increased surveillance and sent agent provocateurs to spy even on ordinary Muslim American citizens. Yet, I do think that the U.S. Government had some legitimate concerns relative to national security issues and this variable was difficult to overlook, but this writer cannot accept or justify any sector of our society being unjustly discriminated because of race or religion.  

Fahim A. Knight Chief Researcher for KEEPING IT REAL THINK TANK located in Durham, NC; our mission is to inform African Americans and all people of good will of the pending dangers that lie ahead; as well as decode the symbolisms and reinterpret the hidden meanings behind those who operate as invisible forces, but covertly rules the world. We are of the belief that an enlighten world will be better prepared to throw off the shackles of ignorance and not be willing participants for the slaughter. Our MOTTO is speaking truth to power. Fahim A. Knight can be reached at,


[1] Richard Nixon, Seize the Moment: America’s Challenge In A One Superpower World. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992) 197-198. 
[2]Noam Chomsky, Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance. (New York: Henry Holt & Company, LLC,  2003) 214-215.
[3] Jimmy Carter, Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid.  (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992) 216.
[4] Bob Woodard, State of Denial. . (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006) 2.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Ehsan Ahrari, “A new weapon in the “Global War of Ideas” Final Call News:
[7] Curt Weldon, Countdown to Terror. (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2005) 157.
[8] Lori Peek, Behind the Backlash: Muslim Americans After 9/11. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press, 2011) 6.
[9] Ibid.
[10]Ibid, 6.
[11] Evelyn Alsultany, Arabs and Muslims in the Media: Race and Representation after 9/11: Critical Cultural Communication . (New York: New York University Press, 2012) 4.   
[12] Ibid. 47. 
[13] Andrew Hacker, Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1992) 3.
[14]On-Line Internet site
[15]John Henrik Clarke, Christopher Columbus & the African Culture. (New York: A& B Publishing, 1992)
[16]George Tenet, At The Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA. (New York: Harper Collin Publishing, 2007) 186-187.
 [17]Amaney Jamal, Race and Arab Americans Before and After 9/11: From Invisible Citizens to Visible Subjects (Arab American Writing). (New York: Syracuse University Press, 2008) 2-4.  
[18] Lori Peek. pp 5.
20 Tariq Ali, The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity. (New York: Verso, 2002) 3.


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