Thursday, October 19, 2017



By Fahim A. Knight-El

Image result for images of SECRET CABALS

This Blog came about after having a conversation with my wife about the so-called public conflict between the Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and President Donald Trump. Tillerson accused the president of being a so-called 'moron'. I had to explain to my wife lets move beyond the reality television drama and the made for public distractions that the media continues to feed the masses. Trump stated he would measure his I.Q. up against Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, and in his opinion no doubt he would win. Perhaps Trump doesn't understand that he and Tillerson both were selected as low level servants and operatives, because of their loyalty to push forward the hidden agenda in which I.Q. wasn't necessarily a top perquisite for the assignment (loyalty was the X factor in the chosen equation).

Some have tried to characterize Trump's overall disposition as the alpha male syndrome, but this was clearly another indication of his inflated false super ego running out of control. However, those of us who understand the mindset of a man like Tillerson relative to the time in which we live would know that he was not created in a vacuum; he was handpicked by the same powers and forces who for centuries have determined world affairs and shaped human history. Tillerson public confirmation by the U.S. Congress was only a matter of going through the motions, in reality it meant nothing, because he had already been confirmed by the committee of 300. Many who are viewing these national and global chessboard strategies and tactics from an awakened and enlightened mind are very clear about what is taking place. It is an added value if one has the ability to siphon through and decode the massive propaganda and chicanery being systematically dispersed by talking heads on CNN, Fox News, MSNBC, CBS, ABC, BBC and the print mediums (Trump is right about 'Fake News').

Let me let you into a little secret, not to many of Trump's Cabinet Members in the United States Government or even other high level civil servants are more qualified, smarter and deceptive than Rex Tillerson, moreover, the testimony of this fact, is him being afforded a seat at the Roundtable (this also includes those that sit in the situation room are mere decoys and insignificant players on the world stage). An Operative on the level of Tillerson did not rise to become one of the top executives of arguably the most powerful oil monopoly or conglomerate in the world such as ExxonMobil because he was a nice guy—he is ruthless and dangerous in which he and Vladimir Putin, the President of Russia are cut from the same cloth (diplomacy is a matter of power and force).

Tillerson understands the rules established by the Invisible Rulers and have sworn his allegiance, and for this, he will be rewarded handsomely for his obedience. His selection by the Hidden Hand is evidence of a man who has the ability to execute their playbook in order to accomplish the agenda. Tillerson’s intellectual and business skills are more valuable than the military expertise of Navy Seals or any other decorated military personnel of the U.S. Arm Forces and are highly sought after by those who control the planet and its resources. ExxonMobil functions as a sovereign entity no different than a sovereign government (they are above all laws and rules). Let me translate this for my reading audience; Tillerson being the former CEO of ExxonMobil was liken to him being the president of an independent nation (these Elitist oil moguls and tycoons answer to no one be it congress or some parliament).

They have so much power, resources and influence they use their wealth to sway and control lobbying on Capitol Hill by covertly financing congresspersons and senators to create bills and legislation that allows big corporations to steal and go unchecked and unregulated. We think we live within a participatory government and governed by a Democracy, but the people’s interest becomes secondary to the Elitist capitalist interest—most of our politicians are bought and paid for. There hasn't been a global significant social phenomenon that hasn't been orchestrated by them. The 9/11 hoax, the collapse of the global economy in 2008, Trump being appointed the 45TH United States President, the rise of white nationalism and the open assault on the poor and ‘have nots’, opiate epidemic being carried out by huge pharmaceutical companies, which makes street level crack, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, methamphetamine, etc., distribution looks like child’s play. But these companies are so powerful that no pharmaceutical executive will be indicted or convicted under RICO statues of operating drug cartels and criminal enterprise (these are your true drug King Pens).

For example, unknowing to the global community, they even finance reactionary groups such as ISIS, this is not to say that there aren't rogue cells who is acting independent in challenging Western imperialism and operate outside the control of the CIA and Hidden Hand agreement that these entities have with some of these reactionary Islamic dissenters. But let me make my readers aware, they have picked a fight with Muslims and Islam in which they cannot win—they are at war with an idea (how do you control the utterance of Allah-U-Akbar, which translates God is the Greatest and this becomes the impetus and motivation of what drives individuals toward Jihad?).

President Donald Trumps travel ban imposed on Yemen, Somali, Iran, Libya, Syria, Sudan, Chad, North Korea and Venezuela will only acerbate and infuriate the tension between the west and the east. The United States Government has declared war on Islam.  They even propped up Bashar Assad of Syria (he was their man in the Middle East until he started to get too big for his britches) and the CIA were deeply in bed with Saddam Hussein these puppets sold their people out for money in order to live lavish life styles. The Saud family dynasty and the corrupt Wahabbi Muslims who controls Mecca and Medina are the epitome of agent provactuers. I will never make Hajj with these sacrilegious hypocrites, I would rather go to Jerusalem or go to Senegal under the Sufi Tijaniyya to observe the fifth pillar of Islam. The Arabs of  Mecca and Medina have dishonored the teachings of Prophet Muhammad Ibn Abdullah and the Qur’an and they are also deeply in bed with the invisible rulers, the CIA and have betrayed Islam in the name of greed and a love for the western life style.

These damnable hypocrites in particular, the ruling class Sheiks love western prostitutes, alcohol, cocaine and heroin, etc., and dubiously impose the Sharia for those who so-called violate Islamic law. The Western governments and the Europeans are often behind what is deemed radical Islamic terrorism in which to create the social, political and economic global outcomes in order to further their agenda around the world (they systematically induce fear and panic). The global political, economic and social paradigm shift that caused 9/11 will continue to lead us down some dark paths, it has led us into an era of a new normal whereas the United States Constitution and its jurisprudence has become irrelevant and left the American people vulnerable because of the erosion of civil liberties (these are dangerous times in which we live).

The Afghanistan War 2001 and the Iraq War 2003, these conflicts were instigated and caused by them, to essentially and strategically set themselves in a place to steal more oil from Kuwait and Iraq (the Sabah family dynasty of Kuwait is corrupt to its core). They also set up military bases and installations to become the watch dogs over the Middle East and the Persian Gulf regions. Although, it has been proven that these conflicts were instigated by George W. Bush based on fabrications and lies; he was never charged with war crimes against humanity. Our brother, Colin Powell went before the United Nations and vehemently accused Iraq of possessing weapons of mass destruction. But look at the human suffering and human carnage, as well as, the collateral damage these False Flags have caused the innocent people of Iraq and the American people who have lost sons and daughters defending American Fascism and imperialism around the world. There was no end game to these wars other than stealing oil and the overall missions lacked a true political or military objective for that region of the world; so sixteen years later U.S. troops are still militarily engaged in both nations (when will the American people say a enough is a enough and demand more responsive foreign policy initiatives from the government?). However, it was President George H.W Bush who got the ball rolling with Desert Storm (1990) and Desert Shield (1991). These wars have cost the American taxpayers billions of dollars and continue to have a running tab even in 2017.

These warmongers and their reactionary foreign policy led to the assassination of our brother Muammar Qadaffi of the Nation of Libya, but it would be up to us to write the historical narrative relative to what he meant to African and African American revolutionaries. I will always look upon him and the Arab Jamahiriya favorably, because he used his wealth to support the Lost-Found Nation of Islam in the West and our leader the Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad in the 1970s by giving him financial aid to refurbish Muhammad Mosque number 2 in Chicago, which once was a Greek Orthodox Church. He also would later give Minister Louis Farrakhan in the early 1980s a five million dollar interest free loan (this served as seed money to construct the Salaam Restaurant on Westside of Chicago); he was a friend of black and brown people and supported liberation struggles around the world. I can recall the Saudis financing Imam Warith Deen Mohammed (the biological son of Elijah Muhammad and his American Muslim Mission and led him toward apolitical Sunni Islam, which rendered him insignificant in the world of American style black politics).

It was President Barack Obama and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton (contrary to the Fake news propaganda, she was deeply involved in the Benghazi hit and the assassination of CIA frontman Chris Stevens) she also paved the way, which led to the assassination of Colonel Qadaffi. How can black people continue to hold this Negro Barack Obama in high esteem he showed us what type of Negro he was when he crossed the black liberation preacher and theologian Dr. Jeremiah Wright, his pastor for nineteen years? I totally agreed with the content of Dr. Wright's speech titled, 'Goddamn America' which got him in trouble with white folk. They are masters of using propaganda and disinformation to shape and mold public opinion.

Moving right along, we must understand that Tillerson did not take this job/assignment of being the Secretary of State because he had an interest in being a good American Patriot defending and protecting the U.S. Constitution against all foreign and domestic enemies. His oath to office had nothing to do with patriotism nor was it rooted in making the world more safer for Democracy. Tillerson's civil servant pay grade is far below his valued expertise and intellectual skill set. He chose to serve at the pleasure of the commander-in-chief strictly out of long term self-interest. But his orders comes directly from the Hidden Hand. Trump on one level want to abort globalism and move the United States back in a political era revolving around 19th and 20th century style nationalism, but he is only doing this to appease Steve Bannon (Trumps flamethrower) who has a brilliant political strategy of controlling the Republican Party by making GOP senators and congressperson believe that he has the influence to determine their political future. He threatened them with declaring war on them if they did not line up behind President Donald Trump's agenda—the problem is Trump went into office with no real political agenda for the nation and this has caused him to waver and vacillate, which has created a dysfunctional administration.

The Talking Heads kept assuring us that Trump was going to pivot and become more presidential—he initially surrounded himself with billionaires, but someone must have advised him that it would be smart to also surround himself with military generals because power is only secure when it can be defended. He immediately abandoned his campaign criticism of generals. Yet, he doesn't have a clue or understanding of the global and geopolitical alignments that Tillerson has relative to knowing and understanding how the world function. Tillerson was cutting deals as the head of ExxonMobil with North Korea Kim Jong-Un and Vladimir Putin, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran, and is very familiar with the international political landscape—Trump doesn’t know geography, lack understanding of world cultures, religions and is a novice when it comes to international politics and diplomacy.

This diplomacy that Tillerson is trying to broker around world in these hot spots is about money and future resource agreements. Tillerson sees markets in Southeast Asia and these war of words between Kim Jong-Un and Donald Trump continues to muddy the water, and do not allow for him to create a pathway into working toward establishing private and government future arm deals and potential defense contracts with North Korea by being allowed to tap into that money that Russia and China is making. He also sees lucrative contracts of supply and demand for ExxonMobil in potentially getting a huge piece of the oil demand that North Korea calls for and whether or not North Korea obtains their nuclear intercontinental missile program, it is just a matter of time—they will have far reaching nuclear capabilities in less than five years. The ‘rocket man’ insults will have no bearing on the technological advancements of a nation who is determined to balance the power in that region of the world and in reality there is nothing the United States can do about it. I do not think China will sit idly by and allow a war to take place in its backyard and/or an attack by the U.S. against one of its closest allies. Some have argued that this can become a powder keg and international impetus for World War III.      

Thus, plain and clear, you can drop Tillerson off anywhere on the planet from Siberia to the frigid Antarctica with no maps just camping gear and he would survive. Tillerson took the job to make untold wealth on the backend, he is a Metal Man (not even Mark Rich lines up in comparison), I told a group of students that he was from a different species and breed (Trump is no match for this tycoon mindset). I also said you can also drop off Jarrett Kushtner any place on the planet as well. The Seven Oil Sisters sent him on this mission to scout out and secure the next exploitative frontier. Tillerson as stated above has had long standing relations with the former USSR during the Cold War.

ExxonMobil and the Rockefellers put huge amounts of financial and military aid in backing the Russians in the nine year war they fought against the Mujahedeen in Afghanistan in which they the Russians lost (1979-1989). The Rockefellers had a twofold interest of helping Russia clear the way of an uninterrupted oil pipeline going through Central Asia and simultaneously claiming more economic stake in the poppy seed and heroin distribution (Dope, Inc). The Russian Elitist and certain segments of Taliban and the Islamic sects of Afghanistan have always been in bed with each other.

Tillerson job is to re-establish the oil alignments from Africa, Persian Gulf in particular Iran because other than the black market distribution Iran's oil since 1979 has been imposed with embargoes and sanctions by the United States State Department; Tillerson liked the Iran Nuclear Deal entered into by the Democratic President Barack Obama—for him lets move away from the divisive political rhetoric that is hindering his ties to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and the financial kickback he anticipate he would receive from the Central Banks in this grand scheme of the oil business—for Tillerson this is strictly about money). Tillerson understand that the Iran Nuclear deal would open up a new oil supply and markets for ExxonMobil with a nation in which was once classified under the Bush Doctrine as a "rogue nation". But lets be clear the antagonistic and volatile relationship between Iran and the United States for over thirty-five years did not impede the flow of oil to the U.S. markets and allied nation markets.

Most of Western European nations and those aligned with the European Union had for decades ignored the U.S. and United Nations embargoes and were buying Iranian crude in violation of international law. The U.S. was also buying and selling to Iran in spite of the sanctions. How do you think the Iranian Revolution has sustained itself since Imam Ayatollah Khomeini overthrew Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in 1979? These contracts were sanctioned by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the United States Justice Department turned a blind eye. Tillerson just don't want to be looking over his shoulder just in case, if some ambitious U S. Attorney decided to use the long extent of the U S. law to prosecute private citizens or corporations who violate the embargoes. Tillerson is not there just to serve as the U.S. chief diplomat or foreign policy negotiator looking to broker deals for the White House. He sees no conflict of interest of assuring that ExxonMobil will continue to serve as one of the oil masters of the world.

Fahim A. Knight-El Chief Researcher for KEEPING IT REAL THINK TANK located in Durham, NC; our mission is to inform African Americans and all people of goodwill, of the pending dangers that lie ahead; as well as decode the symbolism and reinterpreted the hidden meanings behind those who operate as invisible forces, but covertly rules the world. We are of the belief that an enlightened world will be better prepared to throw off the shackles of ignorance and not be willing participants for the slaughter. Our MOTTO is speaking truth to power. Fahim A. Knight-El can be reached at

Sunday, September 10, 2017

The African Influence on Western Architecture

The African Influence on Western Architecture

By Brother Yohance Bediako (And Brother Nkosi Diop)

African Design Principles

Image result for egyptian images

By Brother Yohance Bediako
Brother Yohance have been working in the field of Architecture for 20 years and have developed over the years a diverse back ground and set of skills. He completed his education in architecture at Tuskegee University. Brother Yohance has studied many books written about African culture and traveled to many countries in Africa looking at and studying indigenous architecture. Brother Yohance has had the opportunity at a very young age to have relationships with some of the most dynamic African scholars in the country . Scholars such as Dr. Yosef Ben-Jochannan, Dr. John H Clarke, Dr. Jacob Carruthers, Dr. George Simmons, these are just a few of the scholars that brother Yohance was exposed to and had a relationship with at a very young age. It is from his relationship with these scholars that brother Yohance submersed himself into the studying of African architecture and African culture. Over the years brother Yohance has worked on a variety of projects that range from single family homes, institutional buildings to commercial buildings. But one of brother Yohance's biggest accomplishment is his Non-profit organization, Imhotep Architectural Youth Society.  Imhotep Architectural Youth Society is an organization that provides guidance and advice to African American youth about life decisions and also train them in the field of architecture. Brother Yohance also has an article about African cultures contribution to western architecture that has been published in The SAGE Encyclopedia of African Cultural Heritage in North America.
Note: Brother Yohance is a guest scholar writer and researcher on our Keeping It Real Blog. This posting is an abbreviated version of Brother Yohance research in which his original submission included graphs and photographic documentation that brings his work to greater LIGHT. Brother Yohance is also a Prince Hall Mason and he has a lot to offer our Craft.  I hope to one day soon may be present this same article as PDF to include the pictorial exhibits.

If we look at the Architect throughout history we will see that the Architect holds a very unique position in the society. The Architect is responsible for translating the values, ideas and culture of a society into physical reality through its special forms. This means that the Architect must have an understanding about every aspect of the society. The Architect cannot design a Temple or a Shrine for a deity unless He/She has an understanding about the spiritual and cosmological relationship of the society. The Architect cannot design a home unless He/She has an understanding of the day to day lives of the people in the society. The Architect cannot understand how to plan the arrangements and layout of the village unless He/She has a deep understanding of the cultural ways of the people
themselves. So the Architect must have His/Her finger on the very pulse of the society. The Architect must continue to develop and grow with the knowledge of the society, as the society evolves so should the Architect. 

The field of Architecture is one of the major areas of research for archeologist when studying ancient civilizations. It is through the Architecture of the ancient civilization that the archeologist comes to understand the life style of the ancient societies. Therefore Architecture intrinsically embodies the culture of the people.   


Culture is the product of the collective history of a people that is being constantly informed by forces of the seen and unseen; the collective personality of a people, including their unique cosmology, language, institutions, creative expressions, etc. It is the totality of values, beliefs, and actions that characterize a people. Culture consists of the behavioral patterns, symbols, institutions, and values of a society, and is unique to that society. It is the spiritual, ideational, and material composite that distinguishes one society from another. It shapes and is, in turn, shaped by events in the realm of the spiritual, ideational and the material. All inquiry and solution, truth and beauty, tradition and purity, meaning and reality are culturally relative. There are no culture-free or values-free human endeavors. Culture is not a static phenomenon. It continually evolves as a society evolves and develops. It is that composite of socially and historically determined behaviors that nourishes and thereby defines the intellectual and spiritual parameters within which the human individual develops and exists. As people evolve throughout history, they invariably organize their experiences and their reflections and elaborations on their experiences into various domains of knowledge. Those domains are necessarily linked to the historical nucleus of the culture, and are a consequence of that historical dynamic. Those domains include philosophy, morality, spirituality, ethics, politics, ideology, aesthetics, science, law and others. The several domains and the particular disciplines of knowledge serve as the fixed institutional foundations of the nation. It this case, the domain is architecture.


Cosmology is a system of thought arising out of a people’s history and culture that addresses issues of reality and creation, truth and value, meaning, process, and that people’s place within creation. It is the component of worldview that refers to the structure of reality from a particular racial-cultural perspective and/or experience. Also, it is the study of the origins and structure of the universe. Every culture has their own cosmology that relates to their understanding and explanation of how the universe works and interacts. As we shall address later, cosmology is embedded in architecture traditional African architecture.


Context is the visual relationship to the surrounding.  Spatial context can be any of the following: 1) the a specific building seen in the context of other buildings; 2) a specific building seen in the context of the surrounding landscape; 3) a specific element of the building seen in the context of all the other elements of the building; 4) the relationship between a building’s exterior and interior. Contextualism is the “fitting-in” of a building with surrounding buildings so that it is in harmony with them, especially in terms of scale, form, mass, and color. Contextual elements are history, local site, cultural past, continuity, material, culture, climate, environment, size, appearance, location and form, topography, society's ideas, its form of economic and social organization, its distribution of resources, authorities and beliefs, values. In the case of traditional African architecture, context relates to the physical environment, the available materials used for construction, amongst other criterion.


Architecture is the art and science of design and building structures. It is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction of physical structures. Architectural tradition is a set of architectural practices inherited from one generation and passed down to another. These practices may include methods of construction, patterns of architectural design, using particular building materials for certain cultural or religious purposes, amongst other possibilities. Adapting innovative methods of architecture are incorporated within the development of the architectural tradition.

The Western world has always been influenced by African culture. One of the major African cultures that influenced the Western world is ancient Egypt(Kemet) Nile valley high culture. The major domain of African culture that influenced Western culture is architecture. One of the most influential and enlightening concepts of African architecture that Western society learned from their first ancient educational experience in the African Nile Valley is that of Sacred Geometry and the natural ratio that appears in the growth patterns of nature. The Western society calls this number the Golden Ratio or the Golden Section and is represented with the Greek letter Phi. The Golden Ratio was used in ancient Greece and Rome. The knowledge of the Golden Ratio traveled from ancient Greece and Rome to other parts of Europe and throughout time to this very day. The Africans of the Nile valley used this special proportion in developing many of the sciences that were taught in the Nile valley. One of those sciences is Geometry. The African Nile Valley High culture was not only the first civilization to discover the Sacred Geometry and this universal ratio but, to them these concepts had spiritual power and significance. The ratio was not just a number but a symbol of the creative function, the reproductive power of the male, the fire of life.1(Secrets of The Great Pyramid, Peter Tompkins)  In the ancient African Nile valley culture Sacred Geometry and the Golden Ratio was incorporated and hidden in their iconography and architecture.
What is the Golden Ratio? The golden ratio is obtained when anything is divided in the following example; let’s take a line that is divided into two parts A and B in such a way that part A(The larger part) divided by part B(The smaller part) is equal to parts A+B divided by A. When this is done the ratio of the parts equals 1.618 which is the universal building block of the cosmos. (See figure 1)This ill rational number can continue on to infinity.  Because of its regenerative character the Golden Ratio mainly, but not only, has a spiral appearance, this spiral is found in all parts of the natural world, such as the spiral of a snails shell, the spiral of the horns of a ram, the spiral of a tornado, the spiral of the pedals of a pinecone and the spiral of the galaxy itself.

In the ancient Nile valley the Golden Ratio was expressed in many deferent geometric shapes, like squares, circles, triangles and rectangles. The Golden Ratio and sacred Geometry would be hidden into their iconography. One of the images in the African Nile valley culture is the Neter(Divine Spirit) Min, which is represented as a mummy with an erect phallus, but his phallus is located in the position of his navel. The location of Min’s phallus divides his body into the Golden Ratio.2 (The Temple In Man, R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz) This is also true about the human body, that the navel is the point which divides the human body into the Golden Ratio proportion.(Figure 3a) This knowledge was well known by the Africans of the Nile valley and it was expressed in the Neter(Divine Spirit) Min. In the temple of Ramses IV is the same image of the Neter(Divine Spirit) Min with his whole body leaning at a 3 4 5 right triangle and incorporating the same Golden Ratio proportions.3 (The Egyptian Miracle, R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz, figure 3b) The ancient Africans of the Nile valley had a very deep understanding of this Ratio and it’s significance in nature and with the human body. In addition, in the building of the temples and the pyramids and Tekenu(Obelisk) of the African Nile Valley culture was the incorporation of the value of the Golden Ratio and the number Pi. The entrance to the temple of Auset(Isis)(Figure 4a), according to Schwaller de Lubicz, the Africans of the Nile valley constructed the entrance to the temple by using the Golden Ratio and Pi. In the construction of the entrances the architects started with a 1 to 2 proportion. In figure 4b de Lubicz shows how the different part of the entrance proportionately incorporates the Golden Ratio and Pi.
The Great Pyramid of the African Nile valley(Figure 5a), which is the most recognized and impressive structure in history, also has the Golden Ratio and sacred geometry hidden in its construction. The ancient Africans of the Nile valley believed in the sacred balance of proportion and harmony. The first aspect of sacred geometry that the ancient African architects hid in the Great Pyramid was the Golden Ratio or  Phi. The Great Pyramid was constructed in such a way that if you divide the base of the Great Pyramid in half, than take that half and divide it by the length of the face of the Great Pyramid you would get 1.618 the Golden Ratio and that relationship would automatically make the height of the Pyramid equal to the square root of the length of the face of the Great Pyramid.
The Great Pyramid also solves one of the most ancient sacred geometry issues and that is the squaring of the circle. The Great Pyramid base is a square whose perimeter is equal to the circumference of a circle whose radius is the height of the Great Pyramid.  So through science of sacred geometry the ancient Africans of the Nile valley was able to tie together three geometric shapes that work together in harmony, a triangle, a square and a circle, it squares the circle (Figure 6a). The Greeks would much later after the Africans of the Nile valley had already solved the issue, represent this geometric harmony by placing an image of a man inside a square and a circle.

The Greek civilization also used the Golden Ratio in the building of their temples as shown here in the Parthenon see figure 7.

There are many buildings in Washington DC that use this same proportions and ratio.

One of the popular twentieth century architects Le Corbusier, explicitly used the Golden ratio in a modulor scaling system for architecture proportions. Le Corbusier based this system on the human measurements. He then incorporated these proportions in his architecture.

Ancient Kemet’s Influence on Greek Architecture

Ancient Kemet’s architecture that remains today is breathtaking, monumental in scale and recognizable. It had a particular character that permeated the physical appearance. Distinguishing features marked each design which subscribed to the Kemetic architectural tradition. It also had a noticeable influence on many aspects of Western architecture. It heavily influenced Greek architecture in a multitude of ways. Columns; the colonnade; stylobates; trabeation; post [column] and lintel [beam] construction; the entablature with an architrave frieze and cornice; arches; and the use of stone as a building material are all aspects of construction that are renown throughout architectural history that were first used as  methods of construction along the Nile Valley in Ancient Kemet.

Western culture’s classic civilizations are Ancient Greece and Rome. They are the foundation of Western culture. Their influence on all aspects of Western civilization, including architecture, is abundant. Greek architecture has a definitive architectural vocabulary that continues to have a profound effect on present day Western architecture. Ancient Kemet was the origin of many architectural methods of construction and aesthetics that are commonly overlooked today.


A column is a relatively long, slender vertical structural member. Throughout history, columns have been integral in the construction process.  In Ancient Kemet, columns served as structural and aesthetic 1elements. There are over 30 types of Kemetic column forms that all vary in appearance, size and style. In most cases, the columns had a base, shaft and capital (the top most structural member of the column). Stylobates (a raised platforms supporting a colonnade) were used to reinforce the foundation of columns. Their influence on the Greek Orders is visibly apparent in several of the types.
Kemetic Proto-Doric or Fluted Column Influence on the Greek Doric Order

The Step Pyramid complex of Third Dynasty Pharaoh Djoser (ca. 2667 to 2648 BC) has the Proto-Doric or Fluted Column type with abacus (the uppermost member of the capital of a column), convex shaft and base. [see figures 11,12] It predates the Greek Doric Order. [see figures 13,14] Each type has fluted shafts. Although the Proto-Doric column sits on a base, the typical Greek Doric Order does not.
The Step Pyramid complex (ca. 2667 to 2648 BC) with abacus, fluted shaft and base.

Kemetic Volute Column Influence on the Greek Ionic Order

The Greek Ionic Order derives from Kemetic lotus flower used throughout Ancient Kemetic architecture. The volute (a spiral scroll) style developed through the cultural transmission between Kemet and the Ionian people of Greece. Ancient Kemet developed strong precedent for artistic influence and a historical and cultural context ideal for the transmission of artistic and architectural notions. As Ionians began to colonize portions of the Delta region of Anicent Kemet, significant innovations in Ionian temple architecture of this period began to greatly resemble long established and commonly implemented elements of the Kemetic architectural tradition. [See figures 15,16,17,18,19,20]
Volute Column

Karnak Temple Complex at Karnak, Egypt (3200 BC)

Kemetic Palmiform and Composite Column Influence on the Greek Corithian Order
The Greek Corinthian Order resembles the Palmiform and Composite capitals of Ancient Kemet.  The ornamentation depicted in the capitals of both derived from nature. Mostly notably, inspiration was drawn from the lotus and papyrus of the Nile Valley and acanthus leaves of Ancient Greece. The idea of using the locale vegetation as a decrative column ornimentation was taught to the Greeks by the African architects of the Nile valley.  [See Figures 21,22,23,24]
Composite Column

Temple of Auset, Philae, Egypt (380–362 BC)
The three orders of Ancient Greece columns (Doric, Ionic and Corinthian) were concepts based upon balance and proportion.  And as stated previously were concepts inspired by what the Greeks learned in the Nile valley. These architectural conventions influenced subsequent civilizations such as ancient Rome and Renaissance architecture.  They are archetypes of Western architectural beauty.  Ancient structures like the Parthenon [see figure 25] have influenced countless buildings within the Western hemisphere - specifically civic buildings. The White House (Ionic columns) [see figure 26], the US Supreme Court (Ionic columns) [see figure 27], the Lincoln Monument (Doric columns) [see figure28] and the US Capitol Building (Ionic columns) [see figure 29] are all in Washington, D.C.  Each edifice was inspired by the ancient Greeks who were inspired by the ancient Nile valley African people.
The Parthenon

A colonnade is a number of columns arranged in order, in intervals called intercolumniation, supporting an entablature and, usually, one side of a roof. In Ancient Kemet, the colonnade accompanied post and beam construction. [See figures 30,31,32] They were constructed throughout the dynastic era.

 Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Luxor, Egypt (1490-1460 BC)
Post and Beam Construction
The post and beam method of construction was practiced by the Greeks and is still used throughout the world today. But It was first achieved in monumental fashion throughout the Nile Valley. In the figures shown, post [column] and beam [entablature] construction, and the abacus that sits on top of the capital are demonstrated. [See figures 33,34] The lotus or papyrus capital columns carry the weight of the architrave above. This is the precedence of the Ancient Greek post [column] and beam [entablature] method of construction where the column carries the weight of the beam [entablature] which, in turn, transfers the weight of roof above.

Entablature with Architrave, Frieze and Cornice

The Ancient Greek entablature was an elaborate horizontal band and molding supported by columns. It was horizontally divided into three basic elements: architrave (the lowest member), frieze (the middle member), and cornice (the uppermost member). During the dynastic period of Ancient Kemet, the architrave was decorated with mdw ntr [hieroglyphs]. Its use predates that of the Greeks. A curved cornice often rested above the architrave as a decorative feature.


A clerestory is an upper zone of a wall pierced with windows that emit light to the center of a room. They were first used in Ancient Kemet. Specifically, at the Temple of Amon at Karnak, clerestories permit light inside the Hypostyle Hall. It was later used as a design feature during the later period of Ancient Greece and in some Roman basilicas of justice. Its use is well known in Romanesque and Gothic cathedral architecture. Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France is an example of the use of clerestories in Gothic period architecture. They are flanked by flying buttresses (a specific form of buttressing in which an architectural structure is built against or is projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall) at the exterior of the building. Clerestories are still regularly used in Western architecture in different design capacities and applications. The term now refers to any row of windows above eye level that allow light to penetrate a space.
Mount Rushmore and the Lincoln Memorial
The rock cut Temple of Ramses II was carved into the side of a mountain from massive blocks of sandstone up thirty tons each. This was a literal display of using the site context as the material for the construction of the temple. The faces of Presidents George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson and Theodore Roosevelt carved into Mount Rushmore near Keystone, South Dakota is an example of the Temple of Ramses II’s influence on Western architecture. Additionally, the statue of Abraham Lincoln sitting at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC is a direct parallel to that of the massive replicas of Ramses II sitting at the entrance of the Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel. These type of African influances on western society are very seldom talked about.

The next group of African people that was a very strong influence on Western society was the Moors of North Africa. The Moors entered Europe in the early 700s AD by way of the invasion and Domination of Spain and some parts of Italy, France and southern Europe. The Moors became an extremely influential force and occupied southern Europe for over 700 years. The Moors reestablished the intellectual development and new construction methods in the early European societies, which sparked the renaissance movement of the medieval period. The Moors built the first stone masonry structures and became one of the main master craftsmen in the construction of European castles and cathedrals. The first universities and educational institutions of western society was established by the Moors. One of those early castles built by the Moors was Castillo DeAmenar in Spain.
Africa’s Influence On Modern Society

In today’s society you can see the influence of Africa in many buildings and places in the United States and around the world. The Buildings and places very from national monuments to institutional buildings to private and commercial structures.  The African influences in these structures are very clear as can be seen in the following images.
Further Readings
Armstrong, W., Chipiez (translator), C. Perrot, G. (1883). An ancient history of art in ancient Egypt 2 Volumes. New York: A.C. Armstrong and Son.
Badawy, A. (1965). Ancient Egyptian architectural design: A study of harmonic system. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.
Badawy, A. (1966). Architecture in ancient Egypt and the Near East. Cambridge, MA: The M.I.T. Press.
Basire, J. (1789). The rudiments of ancient architecture, in two parts, vol. 1 of 2. London: I. And J. Taylor's Architectural Library.
Browder, A. T. (1992). Nile Valley contributions to civilization: Exploding the myths (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: The Institute of Karmic Guidance.
Clarke, S., & Englebach, R. (1990). Ancient Egyptian construction and architecture. New York: Dover Publications.
Edwards, A. (1891). Egypt the Birthplace of Greek Decorative Art. Pharoahs fellahs and explorers (pp. 158-192). New York: Harper & Brothers.
Goodyear, W.H. (1887). The Egyptian Origin of the Ionic Capital and of the Anthemion. The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, 3, 271-302.
Gwilt, J. (1982). The encyclopedia of architecture. New York: Random House Publishing.
Harris, C. (Ed.) (2000). Dictionary of architecture & construction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kostof, S. (1995). A history of architecture: Settings and rituals. New York: Oxford University Press.
Livingston, L (2000, December 12). Egyptian influence on Ionic temple architecture. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from
Lloyd, S., Muller. H., Martin, R. (1974). Ancient architecture: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Crete, Greece. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
Lockyer, N. (1894). The dawn of astronomy. London: Cassell and Company Limited.
Riley, J. (1996, May). A paradigm for Kemetic architectural design: The beginnings of a Kemetic architectural design language. Retrieved December 9, 2013 from
Schwaller de Lubicz, R. A. (1977). The temple in man: The secrets of ancient Egypt. Brookline, MA: Autumn Press.
Schwaller de Lubicz, R.A. (1985). The Egyptian miracle.  Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions.
Smith, E. B. (1938). Egyptian architecture as a cultural expression. New York: D. Appleton-Century Co., Inc.
Smith, W. S. (1958). The art and architecture of ancient Egypt. New York: Penguin Books Ltd.
Tompkins, P. (1972). Secrets of the Great Pyramid.  New York: HarperCollins.
Van Sertima, I. (1986). Golden age of the Moor. New Brunswick: Transaction Press.
Vignoloa, A. (Ed.) (1891). The five orders of architecture. New York: Wm. T. Comstock.
Wilkinson, J. (1850). The architecture of ancient Egypt. London: Murray, J.








Monday, May 22, 2017


By Fahim A. Knight-El

Image result for black history images

Black history for me as many of my reading audience, perhaps already know, is a very passionate​ subject in which I take very serious. Some years ago, my three sons were in the public school system as students. My middle son ran into some obstacles about his love for black history (I taught all of my children​ to love their blackness and to embrace their culture and heritage) and on this one occasion a mis-educated and hankerchef head Negro teacher was attempting to deter him from writing a paper on a non-traditional African American leader. The teacher had a shallow perspective on African American history and our contribution to civilization.

This school district constituted Negro teachers and white teachers (both of them shared the same mindset) I took on these Uncle Tom Negro teachers and educators. I wrote a book titled, A Children Manual in African American History, in defense of my son and in defense of every black child in that school district. I wanted to let them know that there were many more historical African American leaders other than George Washington Carver, Dr. Marin Luther King, Jr. and Rosa Parks. I highlighted twenty so-called African American personalities in that book such as: David Walker, Harriet Tubman, Phillis Wheatley, Marian Anderson, Yahweh Ben Yahweh, Marcus Garvey, Booker T. Washington, Sojourner Truth, Kwame Ture, Oba Adefumi, Louis Farrakhan, Carter G. Woodson, Noble Drew Ali, Mary Church Terrell, Elijah Muhammad, W.E.B Dubois, etc.

I explained to my son during this process that if we do not like​ what Negro and white educators are writing and presenting then it is our responsibility and obligation to write and record our own history (this became one of those true teachable moments). But if you dare take this type of non-compromising position, you must be willing to often pay a huge personal price, because there are consequences that comes along when you dare to speak truth to power, I paid and my children paid a heavy price for standing up and challenging white supremacy and their Negro overseers. If had to do it all over again I would do it the exact same way.

The teaching of Black History in the public schools should be considered an academic mandate to be taught as part of the overall curriculum and incorporated as an extension of American History (required beyond just being a student elective) that should serve as a prerequisite for all U.S. public school students. Moreover, which will create culture diversity in learning and foster better understanding about the social, political and economic plight of African American people and their descendents, and the contribution they made in American history and on the stage of world civilization.

Also Black History could be used in the classroom to build positive self-esteem and self-awareness amongst African American students and improve academic achievement. This writer finds this research important because my late grandparents and my Elders informed me that during the Jim Crow (Plessy v. Ferguson 1896) and segregation era in America, in particular in the old south black history was taught in the segregated black school districts and classrooms as a required mandate, it instilled racial pride and connected blacks to the social progress they made prior to slavery, during slavery and up until civil rights movement of the 1950s (Brown v. Board of Education 1954) and 1964 Civil Rights Act were only social progression steps of attempting to legally remedy the political, economic and social challenges that were confronting black people in the 1950s and 1960s (but if we as so-called African Americans​ were honest with ourselves, it is enough clear evidence that has been rendered over the last sixty years to prove that integration has failed us as a people).

This writer will use various scholars, historians and social scientist (mainly secondary sources) to build a scholarly case of why it is important to include the teaching of Black History in the public school classrooms by analyzing and assessing the historiography in which to allow the evidence to substantiate the necessity of Black History being inclusive as part of the pedagogy of the American public educational process.

This research also will briefly look at the systemic effects of Chattel Slavery, Jim Crow and the positive and negative impact segregation had on the educational development of class curriculum (fostering educational disparities) and the roll black history need to continue to play. I would argue that the teaching of Black History could benefit all races, colors and nationalities when it comes to creating a learning environment that promotes educational diversity and an inclusionary teaching dynamic that could increase tolerance amongst students and people who may come from different socio-economic backgrounds and culture experiences. Yet, this writer, will address the critics and opponents of black history who do not view the teaching of black history in the classroom as needing to be mandatory within the American educational curriculum. This writer must be forthcoming and admit that based on the research length this thesis will have limitations in scholarly scope, but nevertheless, will attempt to expand the conversation and discussion relative to the value and importance of having black history being taught in the public systems school classrooms​.

Dr. James Standifer in the 1987 edition of "Journal of Negro Education" argues the importance of educational diversity and inclusion. Standifer argued that the present day teachers with out doubt have been better trained in the application of teaching methodology, which is a step in the right direction. But argued that there should be more training and attention around creating healthier learning environments that stems from working to better understand cultural diversity. And strengthen human relations by synthesizing and infusing into the educational curriculum an appreciation for the culture of ethno-marginalized people such as Asian-American, African American, Native Americans, Hispanic Americans, etc. Standifer argued the above mentioned multicultural approach of ethnic inclusion was more valuable to a society that is in a social, political and economic transition and the curriculum should dictate this by moving away from any previous or present educational models or curriculums that negated multicultural diversity 

Standifer places tremendous value and focus on creating a curriculum that gives way to infusing learning more into a melting pot in which culture was seen as a vehicle to expand student’s worldview and enhance learning, as opposed to allowing culture to serve as a stagnate and divisive antagonistic contradiction. I think that Standifer was a visionary who understood thirty years ago that culture bias, stereotypes, racism, etc., could be eradicated by providing unlimited culture exposure to students; the ultimate goal was building tolerance on the academic level. Standifer argued four major goals and objectives of supporting educational inclusion. 1). To help students develop positive and realistic self-concepts regardless of race, sex, or culture background; (2) to help students understand that both sexes and diverse racial/cultural groups have valuable contributions to the heritage of the United States of America and that this rich diversity enriches and strengthen our country; (3) to help students understand that all persons are members of the human race and have common needs, feelings, and problems, while stimulating their appreciation for the uniques of each individual and culture group; and (4) to help students develop positive interpersonal and intergroup communication techniques as well as motivation to play an active role in the solution of societal conflicts." (James A. Standifer. “The Multicultural, Nonsexist  Principle: We Can't Afford to Ignore It”; The Journal of Negro Education: A Howard University Quarterly Review Issues Incidents to the Education of Black People volume 56 (1987): 471-474 print).

After the 2008 presidential election of America's first so-called black President Barack Obama there was talk that the United States as a nation had transitioned into a post-racial era, which early on some believed that the social and the racial dynamics inside the United States had forever changed with his election of Obama as U.S commander-in-chief. But there were some public intellectuals who were skeptical of this notion such as Dr. Eric Michael Dyson, Dr. Boyce Watkins, Dr. Cornel West, Tavis Smiley and black nationalist leader Minister Louis Farrakhan who attempted to caution us about the so-called post racial era being ushered in with President Barack Obama becoming the first African American president (they argued that according to the NAACP and the U.S. Justice Department the racial divide was acerbated after 2008).

Dr. Carter G. Woodson (1875-1950) known as the Father of Black History understood that the so-called American Negro had a long and worthy history that had been systematically covered up and distorted. It would be the work of Woodson in a formal way in 1926 establishing Black History Week and early on in 1916 founding the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History that brought attention to the need of treating black history as being totally inclusive of United States history and creating a broader level of academic respectability for it as a discipline in and outside the classroom.

Yet, his contemporary Dr. W.E.B. Dubois (1868-1963) who was the first African American in 1895 to receive a Ph.D in history from Harvard University ​and would play a major intellectual role in writing scholarly defenses and re-counting ancient and modern African civilizations that predated American slavery. Dubois and Woodson produced bodies of historiography, which meticulously redefined the historical meaning of black history and how it would be viewed for decades to come, in particular in the world of academia. Dubois and Woodson were professional historians whose scholarship stood as empirical models​ and served as an indication that blacks played a major role on the stage of human civilization. Dr. Carter G. Woodson first published the Mis-Education of the Negro in 1933, and was the second African American to receive a Ph.D in history from Harvard University in 1912 behind W.E. B. Dubois who was awarded a Ph.D from Harvard in 1895 (and wrote the dissertation titled, Suppression of the African Slave Trade).

He explored and critiqued the historical effect American education has had on the so-called American Negro. Woodson maintained that American education was rooted in a Eurocentric and European historical paradigm where European history was viewed as superior to other people's cultures and having falsely thought of themselves as being the citadel of civilization. Thus, African Americans were taught that they were inferior and were urged to admire European historical accomplishments over the contributions that African people had made on the stage of human civilization. The text books were written to reflect the social, political and economic views of the dominant white culture. It was perhaps this negation that has historically fostered the need for African Americans to establish and develop schools and academies that gave recognition to their contributions to world civilizations and American history other than their contributions as slaves. Thus, due to very little official records were being recorded and kept on the African slaves, most of the early history of the black experience had to be pieced milled together from U.S. Census reports and most it was not recorded—it was a crime against humanity because so-called African-Americans have a difficult time trying to retrace our history back to our native home and land of Africa, which often ends in a dead end (oftentimes when we attempt to reconstruct our genealogy roots or family tree, it only allows us to trace our history back to the American slave plantations). Woodson argued that educated blacks have received a mis-education and it has had a negative impact on their worldview and failure to become economically, politically and socially sovereign and autonomous as a free people. He further argued that American blacks will not come to a true historical realization until they know and embrace their own history and culture prior to Chattel slavery and come to know the great African civilizations of Egypt, Mali, Ghana and Songhai (Carter G. Woodson. Mis-Education of the Negro. New York: Tribeca Books, 2013).

However, we should never overlook early black nationalist race leaders such as Paul Cuffee, Martin Delaney, Henry Highland Garnet, Bishop Henry McNeil Turner, Noble Drew Ali, Elijah Muhammad and perhaps the greatest of them of all was Marcus Mosiah Garvey who popularized the Back to Africa Movement and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (U.N I.A.) it would be Garvey' s teaching of black nationalism and Pan-Africanism that redefined what it meant to be black and African—he pointed us to Africa by redefining African history, the symbolism, imagery, and created a sense of black racial pride that has been unmatched in American in history. Garvey also published a magazine called the "Negro World" which published rare black history and accomplishments made by Africans in the Diaspora and on the African continent. Edward Wilmont Blyden in his writings also made a tremendous contribution to exposing the world to the extensiveness of African contributions to world civilization. This writer cited the above scholars and activist as an attempt to argue against the white supremacy agenda who has always attempted to negate the historical contributions of black people, perhaps this racist phenomenon has been detrimental to the collective social progress of the people of the United States. This writer sees the potential benefits of implementing African American history as a subject matter to be taught in the public schools as being a first step and positive redress to rewriting the narrative. This type of critical thinking and analyzing possess the potential of producing positive effects by imploring a curriculum and subject to further create cultural sensitivity and diversity in schools amongst all students. My research assessment will also argue that the educational classroom could be used to alter damaging and negative societal and educational stereotypes such as racism, discrimination, and demeaning images.

This writer find it necessary even in 2017 to reflect back on the historical effect that Chattel Slavery (1555-1865) created and produced, it was perhaps one of the greatest crimes ever committed against humanity. Blacks were kidnapped and snatched from their native lands and countries, denied the right to speak their native Bantu languages, stripped of their names, culture, religion, mores, folkways, etc., during the Transatlantic Slave Trade and the Middle Passage. Moreover, sold into Chattel Slavery in which on the plantation, it caused for families to be divided and sold from plantation to plantation.

The former Yale University professor Dr. John Blassingame in his seminal work titled, The Slave Community, analyzed​ the effect that Chattel Slavery had on black slave families and the shaping of the slave personality. Black slaves were prohibited from being allowed to read and write, in which learning was illegal and against the rules and laws of the institution of slavery.

African Slaves could be flogged and whip or even killed, if caught with a book. Kenneth Stampp in his work titled, Peculiar Institution, he surveyed almost every facet of American slave plantation life and he too argued that it was an inhumane and denigrating system (both economically and racially inspired and maintained). The black slaves were eventually allowed to be preached to and taught a Biblical Christian education and initially this was the only allowable formal education approved for the slave. This quasi educational process was initially conducted by the white slave master and later a trained black overseer. The Christian education was steeped in white supremacy ideological theories where blacks were taught that they were the descendants of the Biblical Ham and was a cursed people and they were taught to obey their masters, this social engineering process created a social and psychological models of white superiority and black inferiority (this was the devastation of the white Christian missionaries had on teaching us a slave doctrine in which Tariq Nasheed in his documentary titled, Hidden Colors 4 explores the intent and effect of white Christianity teachings of indoctrination.

Dr. Naim Akbar was a former professor of psychology at Florida State University in Tallahassee Florida. A former columnist for the "Muhammad Speaks" newspaper  under the Honorable Elijah Muhammad known back then as Brother Luther X. Weems (published a powerful little book titled, The Community of Self) and host of other books: Know thyself, Visions for Black men, Akbar's Papers in African Psychology, Light from Ancient Africa, Chains and Images of Psychological Slavery, etc. He became the National Representative of Imam Warith Deen Mohammed and the American Muslim Mission in the late 1970s and because of his political, and cultural views on black nationalism he had a very short tenure with this apolitical Islamic organization. He also was the former president of the Association of Black Psychologist and member of the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations. and became one​ of the premier scholars of the African-centered movement. Akbar as I stated above had written numerous books relating to the black experience. Akbar argued as a social scientist and as an Afrocentric mental health expert that the 300 years dehumanization process imposed on African Americans by Chattel Slavery left a people psychologically and historically scarred. Akbar continues to argue that the images (created lasting false complexities of superiority among white Americans and inferiority complexities among black Americans or ex-slaves). Dr. Joy DeGruy in her book titled, Post-Traumatic Slave Syndrome, she substantiated Akbar' s contentions relative to the collective damage that slavery had on past, present and on the possible future psyche of those descendants who share the African DNA (DeGruy argues that the black slaves were never allowed to heal). Akbar stated that this phenomenon was more devastating than the physical bondage imposed on blacks under Chattel Slavery in which white supremacy schools of thought created racial and culture disparities. It led to​ unlevel learning fields that supported educational discrimination, stereotypes and attributed to racism being taught in public and private schools. He pointed out that even the image of the Divine (God and Jesus) was represented and portrayed as being white skinned Caucasian (and European).

The American educational system was built on a curriculum of lacking inclusion (Western Civilization in some instances outright lied and distorted history to the detriment of indigenous people) in which they taught that all the major contributions made in world civilization were made by Europeans and lacked respect and appreciation for indigenous people's culture and heritage (this led to white supremacy, genocide, land thievery, exploitation of natural resources and raping and robbing throughout the planet). This in my opinion justifies the need to teach black history in the public school system in order to right the wrong. Akbar states that white supremacy images, symbols, folkways, rites, sacraments, rituals, etc., taught to African Americans during slavery have created a mental bondage in which caused invisible chains that even in 2017 in some instances it has hindered social progress and has proven to be more devastating than the actual physical chains imposed by Chattel Slavery. Akbar also argued that African Americans have to free their minds from Eurocentric culture and ideals. He counters with a solution with putting forth African centered education that promotes positive self-images and working from a psychological perspective to teach black people the knowledge of self. His perspectives were in ideological line with Marcus Garvey and Elijah Muhammad views on education (Naim Akbar. Breaking the Chains and Images of Psychological Slavery. Tallahassee, Florida: Mind Productions and Associates, Inc. 1996).   

The author Curtis Alexander hails in his book title, Elijah Muhammad on African American Education: A Guide for. African American and Black Studies Program , that Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam had it right, in particular building and establishing their own parochial schools (Muhammad University of Islam), which gave them the latitude to devise a black nationalist centered curriculum. The teaching of black history was essential to the Black Muslims pedagogy and was the center of their ideological educational framework (although this was taking place within a private educational setting, nevertheless, I equally believe that this impacted the course of public education as well). Alexander, although, was not a member of the Nation of Islam, he seemed to be moved by Muhammad's do-for-self, and black independence philosophy, which allowed this group to build self-regulating institutions and controlled the curriculum. This gave the Black Muslims an autonym to control the educational destiny of their schools and children. I think Alexander's research allows us a glimpse into the role black nationalism and religious nationalism has played in shaping and defining the importance of black history relative to American education in the United States. The author further defines the ideological foundation of the Black Muslim program in which they were ostracized, ridiculed and condemned for implementing and teachings the importance of black history in a society that had historically created a white supremacy educational worldview (Curtis E. Alexander. Elijah Muhammad on African American Education: A Guide for. African American and Black Studies Program. Chesapeake, Virginia, 1989).

Dr. Earl Thorpe was a former professor of history at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina who also taught at Harvard University alongside authoring Black Historians: A Critique he published nine books and over twenty-five scholarly articles (another one of his acclaim books was titled, The Central Theme of Black History).Thorpe's thesis was an evaluation and historical assessment of various timesframes of black historians and/or professional African American historians who wrote scholarly writings and taught black history and history in general, mainly on the college and university level (all of the black historians reviewed by Thorpe had a scholarly passion towards teaching and promoting black history as a curriculum). Thorpe was an advocate of black scholars having the responsibility of creating a scholarly environment that was rooted in empirical objectivity and as a discipline black history would have met the rigorousness of scholarly scrutiny to justify its importance and value to the overall field of American history. Moreover, Thorpe surveyed the historical time frames: 1800-1896, 1896-1939, and 1930-1960. Thorpe cited various scholars and their works to the field and study of black history in which gives the readers an understanding of the intellectualism behind the historiography that helped shape and mold black history. There is no doubt we are standing on the foundation of black scholars such as W.E.B Dubois and Carter G. Woodson and contribution they made to the study of black history (Earl E. Thorpe. Black Historians: A Critique. New York, New York: William and Morrow and Company, 1958.

Dr. John Hope Franklin retired as a professor Emeritus of history at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. Perhaps one of the most well respected historians of the 20th century. His book From Slavery to Freedom is the most widely read and used black history text books in the world in which many editions have been published in various languages. Dr. Franklin wrote as a professional historian who seemed more concerned with presenting information that met the academic standards of being scientific and presenting black history as a scholarly discourse. Some might argue that his approach to analyzing black history was more of being in line with bourgeoisie values and with a non-threaten approach to appease the white world of academia. Yet, in the beginning of the book Dr. Franklin surveyed the powerful and great African kingdoms and gives the readers a glimpse into African civilizations prior to European colonialism and imperialism. He argues that black history was essentially American history and should be treated beyond just being an insignificant footnote or an afterthought in United States history. Dr Franklin meticulous surveyed and documented over 250 years of black history from when the first slave ships docked in Jamestown, Virginia in 1619 to the Emancipation Proclamation (1862) and the enactment of the 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution that so-called freed the slaves (1865). No one scholar makes a better argument of the importance of recording and teachings black history than Dr. John Hope Franklin (John Hope Franklin. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. New.York, : Alfred A. Knopf, 1980). 

Willis G.Huggins and John G. Jackson published this book A Guide to Studies in African History in 1934, in which Huggins was an Assistant Teacher of Social Studies at Bushwick High School, New York. Dr. John G. Jackson was known for his most popular work titled, Introduction to African Civilization. This small book standout because Huggins was a social studies teacher in the public school. These two scholars perhaps like Joel Augusta Rogers researched and found African presence and contributions in the so-called 'New World' before the arrival of Europeans. For example, in Latin America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santa Domingo, etc., blacks were there even before the Columbus expeditions in 1492, and prior to other European conquistadors venturing into the Americas, but for black students what one perhaps will find astonishing about this work was the historical impact the Nubian Moors in the 8th Century under Tarik Ibn Zaid had on southern Europe, in particular on the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). The Moors in 711 AD had conquered Spain and introduced pave streets, public and private bathing facilities, lit streets, etc., in Cordova, Seville, and Barcelona some of the Moorish architecture history is well preserved. It was these black Nubian Moors that after the Dark Ages brought civilization throughout European society. Jackson and Huggins desired to prove that black people had a worthy history that was worth mentioning and give it the scholarly recognition it deserved. This research was taking place during the period of Jim Crow and the Harlem Renaissance; and like Dubois, Woodson, Hansberry, Franklin, etc; they all wrote with a passion to uncover facts about the so-called American Negro and yet to equally prove to their white historian counterparts that they possessed the ability to be empirical and objective as black social scientist (Jackson, John G. Jackson and Willis N. Huggins, . A Guide to Studies in African History. New York, New York: The Federation of History Club, 1934).

Dr. Molefi Asante was a professor at Temple University in Philadelphia in history and black studies. Perhaps in the late 1980s and 1990s a group of black intellectuals surveyed academia and determined that African (black people) were not receiving the scholarly attention for their contributions to civilization. The Afrocentric movement created a new level of excitement in African history, traditions, cultures, etc., it was a semi-intellectual explosion, moreover, this movement was being led by the likes of Dr. Leonard Jeffries, IvanVan Sertima, Asa Hilliard, Mualana Karenga, John Henrik Clarke, Amos Wilson, Khallid Abdul Muhammad, Marimbe Ani, Cheikh Anta Diop, etc. This movement as stated above created a reinvigoration for the need to bring black history back into the schools, because Eurocentric scholars had omitted pertinent factual historical information about African and black people in world history and had systematically disseminated lies, distortions and half-truths about African people's contributions to human civilization. Asante did not offer anything new because prior to Afrocentric thoughts and theories Pan-Africanist and Black Nationalist leaders have argued for over a century the need to redefine the history of African people to reflect a historical narrative beyond Chattel Slavery and beyond the Europeans interpretations. Yet, the difference was Afrocentric thought had moved into the world of academia and for the first time on a large scale, it was forcing a different type of debate amongst the scholarly community relative to inclusion (Molefi Kete Asante. Afrocentricity. New York, New York: Africa World Press, 1988). 

Dr. Mary Lefkowitz in her book titled, Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History wrote the anti-thesis as a historical critique to Afrocentricity, which Dr. George G.M. James, Cheikh Anta Diop, Dr. Molefi Asante, John Henrik Clarke, Yosef A. A. Ben Jochannan, etc., argued that western theoreticians had always viewed Africa as an object rather than a subject and saw Africa as the Dark Continent who made no contribution to world civilization. Dr. Lefkowitz was a Humanities professor at Wellesley College in Massachusetts. (she led some of the scholarly attacks against Dr. Tony Martin who authored the book titled, The Jewish OnSlaught: Dispatches From Wellesley Battlefront). She argued against Egypt (Kemet) being black and Nubian and attributed Egypt (Kemet) greatness to having historical relations with Greek society where by Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, etc., have received the credit as being great enlightened master teachers, but George G.M. James in his book titled, Stolen Legacy argued that Greek Mythology was essentially Egyptian Philosophy and they stole their knowledge from the Nubian blacks of Kemet. This writer viewed Lefkowitz contentions as being a scholarly insult because it quasi sought to denigrate the intellectualism of black people as being incapable of introducing world civilization to Europeans and others around the world. The building and construction of the pyramids has mystified Europeans for centuries in which Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop posed the question in the title of his book African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality and unlike Lefkowitz, he made the case that Africa from North Africa down to South Africa was black. Although, Diop understood that due to outside invasions from the Persians, Turks, Arabs, Semites, Greeks, Romans, Assyrians, etc., which led to the  miscegenation in Kemet. However, there was little doubt that the original people that occupied Egypt were black skinned Nubians. This alone beckons the need for black history to be taught in the public schools system.(Lefkowitz, Mary. Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History. New York, New York: Basic Books, 1997).

Lastly, this writer thinks it would be a positive step in the right direction to mandate and include black history as part of the curriculum in United States publc schools with the educational objective of contributing to enhancing racial diversity and helping tear down artificial barriers such as cultural biases, racism, stereotypes and all forms of discrimination in the public school system and outside. Moreover, the teaching of black history has the potential of creating a level of tolerance​ and sensitivity amongst all people who may differ in national origin, ethnic and racial, religious and/or culturally. Finally this writer believes that it could also be used to inspire African American students to be more motivated to achieve academically.

Fahim A. Knight-El Chief Researcher for KEEPING IT REAL THINK TANK located in Durham, NC; our mission is to inform African Americans and all people of goodwill, of the pending dangers that lie ahead; as well as decode the symbolism and reinterpreted the hidden meanings behind those who operate as invisible forces, but covertly rules the world. We are of the belief that an enlightened world will be better prepared to throw off the shackles of ignorance and not be willing participants for the slaughter. Our MOTTO is speaking truth to power. Fahim A. Knight-El can be reached at